botorch.generation¶

Candidate Generation Utilities for Acquisition Functions¶

Candidate generation utilities.

botorch.generation.gen.gen_candidates_scipy(initial_conditions, acquisition_function, lower_bounds=None, upper_bounds=None, inequality_constraints=None, equality_constraints=None, nonlinear_inequality_constraints=None, options=None, fixed_features=None)[source]

Generate a set of candidates using scipy.optimize.minimize.

Optimizes an acquisition function starting from a set of initial candidates using scipy.optimize.minimize via a numpy converter.

Parameters
• initial_conditions (torch.Tensor) – Starting points for optimization.

• acquisition_function (botorch.acquisition.acquisition.AcquisitionFunction) – Acquisition function to be used.

• lower_bounds (Optional[Union[float, torch.Tensor]]) – Minimum values for each column of initial_conditions.

• upper_bounds (Optional[Union[float, torch.Tensor]]) – Maximum values for each column of initial_conditions.

• constraints (equality) – A list of tuples (indices, coefficients, rhs), with each tuple encoding an inequality constraint of the form sum_i (X[indices[i]] * coefficients[i]) >= rhs.

• constraints – A list of tuples (indices, coefficients, rhs), with each tuple encoding an inequality constraint of the form sum_i (X[indices[i]] * coefficients[i]) = rhs.

• nonlinear_inequality_constraints (Optional[List[Callable]]) – A list of callables with that represent non-linear inequality constraints of the form callable(x) >= 0. Each callable is expected to take a (num_restarts) x q x d-dim tensor as an input and return a (num_restarts) x q-dim tensor with the constraint values. The constraints will later be passed to SLSQP.

• options (Optional[Dict[str, Any]]) – Options used to control the optimization including “method” and “maxiter”. Select method for scipy.minimize using the “method” key. By default uses L-BFGS-B for box-constrained problems and SLSQP if inequality or equality constraints are present.

• fixed_features (Optional[Dict[int, Optional[float]]]) – This is a dictionary of feature indices to values, where all generated candidates will have features fixed to these values. If the dictionary value is None, then that feature will just be fixed to the clamped value and not optimized. Assumes values to be compatible with lower_bounds and upper_bounds!

• inequality_constraints (Optional[List[Tuple[torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor, float]]]) –

• equality_constraints (Optional[List[Tuple[torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor, float]]]) –

Returns

2-element tuple containing

• The set of generated candidates.

• The acquisition value for each t-batch.

Return type

Tuple[torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor]

Example

>>> qEI = qExpectedImprovement(model, best_f=0.2)
>>> bounds = torch.tensor([[0., 0.], [1., 2.]])
>>> Xinit = gen_batch_initial_conditions(
>>>     qEI, bounds, q=3, num_restarts=25, raw_samples=500
>>> )
>>> batch_candidates, batch_acq_values = gen_candidates_scipy(
initial_conditions=Xinit,
acquisition_function=qEI,
lower_bounds=bounds[0],
upper_bounds=bounds[1],
)

botorch.generation.gen.gen_candidates_torch(initial_conditions, acquisition_function, lower_bounds=None, upper_bounds=None, optimizer=<class 'torch.optim.adam.Adam'>, options=None, callback=None, fixed_features=None)[source]

Generate a set of candidates using a torch.optim optimizer.

Optimizes an acquisition function starting from a set of initial candidates using an optimizer from torch.optim.

Parameters
• initial_conditions (torch.Tensor) – Starting points for optimization.

• acquisition_function (botorch.acquisition.acquisition.AcquisitionFunction) – Acquisition function to be used.

• lower_bounds (Optional[Union[float, torch.Tensor]]) – Minimum values for each column of initial_conditions.

• upper_bounds (Optional[Union[float, torch.Tensor]]) – Maximum values for each column of initial_conditions.

• optimizer (Optimizer) – The pytorch optimizer to use to perform candidate search.

• options (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str]]]) – Options used to control the optimization. Includes maxiter: Maximum number of iterations

• callback (Optional[Callable[[int, torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor], NoReturn]]) – A callback function accepting the current iteration, loss, and gradients as arguments. This function is executed after computing the loss and gradients, but before calling the optimizer.

• fixed_features (Optional[Dict[int, Optional[float]]]) – This is a dictionary of feature indices to values, where all generated candidates will have features fixed to these values. If the dictionary value is None, then that feature will just be fixed to the clamped value and not optimized. Assumes values to be compatible with lower_bounds and upper_bounds!

Returns

2-element tuple containing

• The set of generated candidates.

• The acquisition value for each t-batch.

Return type

Tuple[torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor]

Example

>>> qEI = qExpectedImprovement(model, best_f=0.2)
>>> bounds = torch.tensor([[0., 0.], [1., 2.]])
>>> Xinit = gen_batch_initial_conditions(
>>>     qEI, bounds, q=3, num_restarts=25, raw_samples=500
>>> )
>>> batch_candidates, batch_acq_values = gen_candidates_torch(
initial_conditions=Xinit,
acquisition_function=qEI,
lower_bounds=bounds[0],
upper_bounds=bounds[1],
)

botorch.generation.gen.get_best_candidates(batch_candidates, batch_values)[source]

Extract best (q-batch) candidate from batch of candidates

Parameters
• batch_candidates (torch.Tensor) – A b x q x d tensor of b q-batch candidates, or a b x d tensor of b single-point candidates.

• batch_values (torch.Tensor) – A tensor with b elements containing the value of the respective candidate (higher is better).

Returns

A tensor of size q x d (if q-batch mode) or d from batch_candidates with the highest associated value.

Return type

torch.Tensor

Example

>>> qEI = qExpectedImprovement(model, best_f=0.2)
>>> bounds = torch.tensor([[0., 0.], [1., 2.]])
>>> Xinit = gen_batch_initial_conditions(
>>>     qEI, bounds, q=3, num_restarts=25, raw_samples=500
>>> )
>>> batch_candidates, batch_acq_values = gen_candidates_scipy(
initial_conditions=Xinit,
acquisition_function=qEI,
lower_bounds=bounds[0],
upper_bounds=bounds[1],
)
>>> best_candidates = get_best_candidates(batch_candidates, batch_acq_values)


Sampling Strategies¶

Sampling-based generation strategies.

A SamplingStrategy returns samples from the input points (i.e. Tensors in feature space), rather than the value for a set of tensors, as acquisition functions do. The q-batch dimension has similar semantics as for acquisition functions in that the points across the q-batch are considered jointly for sampling (where as for q-acquisition functions we evaluate the joint value of the q-batch).

class botorch.generation.sampling.SamplingStrategy[source]

Bases: torch.nn.modules.module.Module, abc.ABC

Abstract base class for sampling-based generation strategies.

Initializes internal Module state, shared by both nn.Module and ScriptModule.

Return type

None

abstract forward(X, num_samples=1, **kwargs)[source]

Sample according to the SamplingStrategy.

Parameters
• X (torch.Tensor) – A batch_shape x N x d-dim Tensor from which to sample (in the N dimension).

• num_samples (int) – The number of samples to draw.

• kwargs (Any) – Additional implementation-specific kwargs.

Returns

A batch_shape x num_samples x d-dim Tensor of samples from X, where X[…, i, :] is the i-th sample.

Return type

torch.Tensor

training: bool
class botorch.generation.sampling.MaxPosteriorSampling(model, objective=None, posterior_transform=None, replacement=True)[source]

Sample from a set of points according to their max posterior value.

Example

>>> MPS = MaxPosteriorSampling(model)  # model w/ feature dim d=3
>>> X = torch.rand(2, 100, 3)
>>> sampled_X = MPS(X, num_samples=5)


Constructor for the SamplingStrategy base class.

Parameters
• model (Model) – A fitted model.

• objective (Optional[MCAcquisitionObjective]) – The MCAcquisitionObjective under which the samples are evaluated. Defaults to IdentityMCObjective().

• posterior_transform (Optional[PosteriorTransform]) – An optional PosteriorTransform.

• replacement (bool) – If True, sample with replacement.

Return type

None

forward(X, num_samples=1, observation_noise=False)[source]

Sample from the model posterior.

Parameters
• X (torch.Tensor) – A batch_shape x N x d-dim Tensor from which to sample (in the N dimension) according to the maximum posterior value under the objective.

• num_samples (int) – The number of samples to draw.

• observation_noise (bool) – If True, sample with observation noise.

Returns

A batch_shape x num_samples x d-dim Tensor of samples from X, where X[…, i, :] is the i-th sample.

Return type

torch.Tensor

training: bool
class botorch.generation.sampling.BoltzmannSampling(acq_func, eta=1.0, replacement=True)[source]

Sample from a set of points according to a tempered acquisition value.

Given an acquisition function acq_func, this sampling strategies draws samples from a batch_shape x N x d-dim tensor X according to a multinomial distribution over its indices given by

weight(X[…, i, :]) ~ exp(eta * standardize(acq_func(X[…, i, :])))

where standardize(Y) standardizes Y to zero mean and unit variance. As the temperature parameter eta -> 0, this approaches uniform sampling, while as eta -> infty, this approaches selecting the maximizer(s) of the acquisition function acq_func.

Example

>>> UCB = UpperConfidenceBound(model, beta=0.1)
>>> BMUCB = BoltzmannSampling(UCB, eta=0.5)
>>> X = torch.rand(2, 100, 3)
>>> sampled_X = BMUCB(X, num_samples=5)


Boltzmann Acquisition Value Sampling.

Parameters
• acq_func (AcquisitionFunction) – The acquisition function; to be evaluated in batch at the individual points of a q-batch (not jointly, as is the case for acquisition functions). Can be analytic or Monte-Carlo.

• eta (float) – The temperature parameter in the softmax.

• replacement (bool) – If True, sample with replacement.

Return type

None

forward(X, num_samples=1)[source]

Sample from a tempered value of the acquisition function value.

Parameters
• X (torch.Tensor) – A batch_shape x N x d-dim Tensor from which to sample (in the N dimension) according to the maximum posterior value under the objective. Note that if a batched model is used in the underlying acquisition function, then its batch shape must be broadcastable to batch_shape.

• num_samples (int) – The number of samples to draw.

Returns

A batch_shape x num_samples x d-dim Tensor of samples from X, where X[…, i, :] is the i-th sample.

Return type

torch.Tensor

training: bool